Alexander Calder (Lawton, Pennsylvania, 1898 - New York, 1976).
He is famous for his kinetic art sculptures, mobile sculptures, but also for pictorial works, lithographs, and design of toys, tapestries, and carpets. He studied mechanical engineering. In 1926, he went to Paris and started producing toys that he then presented at the Salon des Humoristes. Fascinated by the circus world, he created a miniature circus with wire, string, rubber and recycled objects, designed to be transported in a suitcase, holding impromptu shows inspired by the real ones. With the advent of the Parisian avant-garde, the Circus Calder became famous to such an extent that the artist began charging the ticket for the vision of the representation. Back to the USA, he designed wooden toys, mass-produced. In 1929, he exhibited in a Parisian gallery works realized with wire, wire sculptures, with other important artists, avant-garde exponents, including Miró, Arp and Duchamp. After a visit to Mondrian's studio, he was pleasantly impressed by abstract art. After a series of artistic experiments, he arrived at kinetic sculpture, set in motion by cranks and pulleys. In 1931, he created delicate sculptures that exploited wind and air flow. He designed theater scenography and, during the 50s, reached the peak of his career: retrospectives, museums, awards, prizes and important exhibitions.
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